Apa method section research paper

Apa sample paper

Although there are no standard subsections, it is still important for the results section to be logically organized. Finally, remember that your goal is to construct an argument for why your research question is interesting and worth addressing—not necessarily why your favourite answer to it is correct. We used a method based on the one used by Williams Here are some simple examples: Another example of this phenomenon comes from the work of Williams In fact, the basic results should be clear even to a reader who skips over the numbers. Specialized equipment, especially if it is something that is complex or created for a niche purpose, should be given greater detail. Finally, if you are writing your paper for a class or for a specific publication, be sure to keep in mind any specific instructions provided by your instructor or by the journal editor. At the same time, it should avoid irrelevant details such as the fact that the study was conducted in Classroom 37B of the Industrial Technology Building or that the questionnaire was double-sided and completed using pencils. The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions. This allows other researchers to reproduce your experiment if they want and to assess alternative methods that might produce differing results. Besides, a large part of what makes a research question interesting is uncertainty about its answer. Breaking the RulesResearcher Larry Jacoby reported several studies showing that a word that people see or hear repeatedly can seem more familiar even when they do not recall the repetitions—and that this tendency is especially pronounced among older adults. Provide enough detail that another researcher could replicate your study if he or she wanted.

Overview The method section should utilize subheadings to divide up different subsections. Take a rough draft of your method section to your university's writing lab for additional assistance.

Apa methods section example

Again, there should be a clear organization. What might be some of the pros and cons of using cute article titles? Clearly identify your independent variables, dependent variables , control variables, and any extraneous variables that might influence your results. One approach would be to answer the most general questions and then proceed to answer more specific ones. The heading at the top of this page is the full title of the manuscript, with each important word capitalized as on the title page. For example, if your study consists of female college students from a small private college in the mid-West, you should note this in this part of your method section. It often works well to describe the procedure in terms of what the participants did rather than what the researchers did. The results section should then tackle the primary research questions, one at a time. Specify the variables as well as the levels of these variables. All sessions were videotaped so the data could later be coded. Breaking the RulesResearcher Larry Jacoby reported several studies showing that a word that people see or hear repeatedly can seem more familiar even when they do not recall the repetitions—and that this tendency is especially pronounced among older adults. The rest of the steps involve presenting the research question and the answer to it in words. Finally, remember that your goal is to construct an argument for why your research question is interesting and worth addressing—not necessarily why your favourite answer to it is correct.

In some instances, such as if you created a special material or apparatus for your study, you may need to provide and illustration of the item that can be included in your appendix and then referred to in your method section.

The method section should provide enough information to allow other researchers to replicate your experiment or study. As we have already seen, the authors are listed in an order that reflects their contribution to the research.

Sample apa research paper

A final preliminary issue is whether the manipulation was successful. The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions. Here are some simple examples: Another example of this phenomenon comes from the work of Williams Was the independent variable manipulated, and if so, was it manipulated between or within subjects? An alternative perspective has been provided by Williams For example: "Two stories from Sullivan et al. This part of your method section should also explain how many participants were in your study, how many were assigned to each condition, and basic characteristics of your participants such as sex, age, ethnicity, or religion. Will it provide a test of an important theory? Do not just rely on computer spell checkers. As we have already seen, the authors are listed in an order that reflects their contribution to the research. For example, the participants gave their informed consent, read a set of instructions, completed a block of four practice trials, completed a block of 20 test trials, completed two questionnaires, and were debriefed and excused.

For example: "We randomly selected children from elementary schools near the University of Arizona. The absence of tipping was a central theme in the orientation lecture, mentioned frequently to emphasize the quality of care along with the advantages of having paid in advance.

Or if they recalled as many items as they could from study list of 20 words, did you count the number correctly recalled, compute the percentage correctly recalled, or perhaps compute the number correct minus the number incorrect?

Apa method section research paper

For example, if participants rated the attractiveness of 20 stimulus people, you might have to explain that you began by computing the mean attractiveness rating for each participant. Proofread your paper for typos, grammar problems, and spelling errors. For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories. This works well for methods that are relatively simple and can be described adequately in a few paragraphs. You should provide detailed information on the research design, participants, equipment, materials, variables, and actions taken by the participants. The opening introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting, the literature review discusses relevant previous research, and the closing restates the research question and comments on the method used to answer it. Design Describe the type of design used in the experiment. The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions.

Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure. Did participants receive some type of incentive to take part in your research? What is the difference between design and procedure?

research paper methods example

Another would be to answer the main question first and then to answer secondary ones.

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How to Write a Method Section of an APA Paper